To improve the work efficiency through minimizing the travel distance and maximizing the visual contact with patient from the nurses’ station and advancement in architectural technology gave rise to the new wave of experimentation to radial , semicircular and cloverleaf floor plan for nursing unit.in this type greater efficiency in term of staffing ratio, reduce travel distance for staff better observation of patients and ease in expansion made this type of configuration more popular to patient and hospital staff. The disadvantages indicate the loss of privacy in the irregular shape as the door were usually wide open to face the nurses station and sometimes bed were placed toward nurses station putting patient’s backside virtually against the window wall. In the search for ideal radial nursing unit , in 1960, hospital went through three early stage.

The side by side concept: where the main hospital was placed beside one or more radial patient tower.
Figure 7: Side by side concept -Lorain Community Hospital Ohio , 1965

Example: The lorain community Hospital in Larian , Ohio( 1964-65), was the first radial side by side hospital in the united states. The hospital is built initially for 150 beds. A central Spain connected to the main body of the hospital ran on an axis with the main public entrance, two radial nursing towers flanked this axis, housing the nursery, pediatric office and consultation room. The central nurses’ station was situated between the two towers.

The Piggy back concept: where the radial tower straddled above an orthogonal support base. Example: Scott & white memorial Hospital in Temple, Texas (1963-65), was built on a piggy back concept where we find three five level patient tower sat atop a two level support base.one of the three towers was built slightly higher than the others, it house thirty bed ; whereas smaller two housed sixteen bed each and 35percent of the beds were in private room without broad toilet.

20th -Figure 8 Piggy back concept

Figure 8 Piggy back concept: Scott & white memorial Hospital in Temple, Texas (1963-65).

Radialization concept: the entire hospital become radial including the base as well as it tower. Example:Central Kansas Medical Center, Kansas,designed by Shaver and compsany with J.A. Hamilton and associate( 1963-64). Here each of the pateient tower housed a twenty three bed nursing unit on each floor, along with a glassed –in nurses station and staff supooort amenities in the center of each unit.teh traingulated central core on each floor housed stair elevator , consultaion room and supply and equipment room.

20th Figure 9 : Radialization concept

Figure 9 : Radialization concept- Central Kansas Medical Center, (1963-64).

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